EYE DISEASES

Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis is a very common eye condition. It occurs when there is swelling of the conjunctiva, a transparent layer of cells that covers the surface of the eye, including under the eyelid. The inflammation of the conjunctiva gives the eye a red appearance.

Conjunctivitis can be contagious when caused by a pathogen. This pathogen may be in the form of a virus or bacteria. Most often it is caused by a virus, and slightly more rarely by a bacterial infection. Generally, it affects one eye first before spreading to the second later.

While it can be annoying, conjunctivitis does not usually impair vision and requires no urgent treatment. However, since bacterial and viral conjunctivitis are contagious, it is recommended that you get diagnosed and treated.

BBGR maladie de l’œil conjonctivite

Cataracts

Cataracts is an eye disease that is nowadays easily treated.
It is an eye condition that causes a clouding of the crystalline lens. This prevents light from reaching the retina. Cataracts can produce the following symptoms : progressive loss of vision, especially far vision, blurred vision, appearance of irritating light halos at night, heightened sensitivity to sunlight, glare.

Curing cataracts
Cataracts is a partial or total clouding of the crystalline lens that can threaten eyesight in the long term. It is an unavoidable disease whose progression varies depending on various contributing factors throughout a person’s lifetime. It occurs most often after the age of 60, but is still known to occur before 60 depending on lifestyle.
Your ophthalmologist and optician will recommend the appropriate eyeglasses to wear after surgery.

BBGR examen de vue dépistage maladie de l’œil cataracte

Dyschromatopsia and colour blindness

Colour blindness

Dyschromatopsia is a condition that causes difficulties in distinguishing colours, such as greens or blues. It is deuteranopia when it specifically involves the colour red. Some people cannot see any colours and see only in grayscale. In this case, the condition is called achromatopsia. Often hereditary, dyschromatopsia primarily affects men: 8% of European men suffer from condition, compared to only 0.4% of women.

Living with dyschromatopsia


Present from birth, dyschromatopsia is particularly difficult to detect. Only ophthalmological tests can identify it. Currently, there is no cure. However, there are some solutions that can help distinguish different shades, such as wearing coloured eyeglass lenses or specialised contact lenses.

BBGR pathologie de l’œil dyschromatopsie et daltonisme
BBGR pathologie de l’œil dyschromatopsie et daltonisme

Retinopathy

There are two types of retinopathy: diabetic and pigmentary.

Diabetic retinopathy affects, as the name suggests, people suffering from diabetes.

The symptoms — swelling of the mucula and difficulty seeing — generally only present themselves in the advanced stages of the disease. Simple diabetic retinopathy is when the blood vessels leak liquid that causes swelling in the retina, and proliferative retinopathy is when new vessels are created. Treatment involves destroying the abnormal vessels with a laser.


Pigmentary retinopathy is a genetic disease

characterised by problems with the pigment epithelial cells and the degeneration of photoreceptors. Sufferers’ vision is impaired by the deposit of pigments at the back of the eyes and can ultimately lead to blindness. There is still no suitable treatment for this degenerative disease. However, emerging research looks promising.

BBGR pathologie de l’œil rétinopathie diabétique

ARMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration)

ARMD is a common degenerative disease that generally occurs after the age of 50. It attacks the retina’s central area, impacting the eyes’ central vision while leaving peripheral vision unaffected. ARMD suffered have difficulty recognising shapes and colours, which makes activities such as reading and driving difficult.

Living with ARMD


There is not yet a cure for dry ARMD, which is the most common form. However, an appropriate diet and the use of magnifying lenses can help limit deterioration and prevent it becoming wet ARMD. Wet ARMD occurs when the vessels grow underneath the retina. There are special treatments available to prevent its development. A laser operation is needed to destroy any existing vessels.

BBGR examen de vue dépistage maladie de l’œil DMLA

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is an eye disease that can lead to blindness..
A result of damage to the optic nerves, glaucoma is a disease that causes an irreversible deterioration to the field of vision If you have any doubts, it is highly recommended that you visit an ophthalmologist immediately since early treatment is crucial. Make an appointment quickly if you notice :
  • A loss of peripheral and then central vision
  • A rapid deterioration of vision and the appearance of coloured halos
  • A half-dilated pupil combined with a red eye

Strict medical treatment can cure glaucoma, as can laser surgery or an operation.

Copyright © 2013 ESSILOR ACADEMY EUROPE, Geneviève Prévost with the contribution of Dominique Martin, 13 rue Moreau, 75012 Paris, France. 03/2014. All rights reserved

BBGR pathologie de l’œil glaucome
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