The most common vision problems

Whether they be congenital or if they appear suddenly or progressively, vision problems can affect us at any age.

Let’s take a look at the most common vision problems.


BBGR, fabricant français de verres optiques, illustration du trouble visuel de la myopie. L’œil myope est trop long, trop puissant, l’image se forme en avant de la rétine et la vision de loin est floue. Image gettyimages-517811156
A person with myopia has excellent near vision, but their far vision is blurry. Myopic eyes are too long and powerful, so the image forms in front of the retina.
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 For children, trouble reading the blackboard
 Screwing up the eyes to see better
 Difficulty seeing at night, particularly when driving
BBGR pictogramme loupe

Did you know ?

A sharp increase in myopia worldwide. By 2050, it is estimated that 50% of the global population will suffer from myopia, including 10% with severe myopia. (1)

(1) Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050; Ophthalmology. 2016


BBGR trouble visuel hypermétropie
A person with hyperopia can see far-off objects perfectly clearly, but objects that are nearby appear blurry. The eye is too short. To see near objects clearly, hypermetropic people must make an accommodative effort.
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 Difficulty concentrating
 Tendency to squint
 Difficulty focusing on nearby objects


BBGR trouble visuel astigmatisme
With astigmatism, the curve of the eye is irregular. Instead of being spherical (like a football), it is toric (like a rugby ball). Astigmatism can occur in conjunction with myopia or hyperopia.
BBGR pictogramme oeil


 Mixing up letters
 Eye strain


BBGR, fabricant français de verres optiques, illustration du trouble visuel de la presbytie. Evolution naturelle liée au vieillissement de l’œil. Entraîne une difficulté à faire la mise au point de près, à cause de la perte de souplesse du cristallin. Le symptôme le plus révélateur est la difficulté à lire. Image gettyimages-1075647696
This affects everyone after the age of 45. Presbyopia is not a vision defect, but a natural evolution related to the eye’s aging. It makes it difficult to focus on near objects due to the crystalline lens becoming less flexible.
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 A need to stand back to see nearby objects clearly
 Need for more light to read

Eye strain

BBGR, fabricant français de verres optiques, illustration du trouble visuel de la fatigue visuelle. La fatigue visuelle se manifeste à tout âge, en particulier lorsque la vision de près est sollicitée de manière prolongée. Elle est souvent due au travail sur ordinateur ou à des lunettes qui ne sont plus adaptées au besoin visuel. Image gettyimages-1075647696
78% of French people say they suffer from eye strain(1). The symptoms of eye strain can occur at any age, particularly when our near vision is used for long periods of time.
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 Tired and itchy eyes
 Evening headaches
 Blurry or double vision at the end of the day
 Red and dry eyes

Apart from working on a computer, all research suggests that the leading cause of eye strain remains undetected vision problems(2). It may also be caused by eyeglasses that are no longer suitable (3) for your needs.

(1) Data collected by Nikon Optical Lenses based on 3,946 people asked in May and June 2018 in 7 French cities (Paris, Nancy, Lyon, Marseille, Limoges, Nantes, Arras) who replied “often” or “very often” to the question “Do you suffer from eye strain?”.
(2) F. Cail, S. Salsi. Eye strain…(Research report) Scientific and technical notes from INRS NS 92, Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (INRS). 1992
(3) Sheedy, JE. Vision problems at video display terminals: a survey of optometrists. J Am Optom Assoc 63, 687-692, 1992.

Visual impairment

BBGR trouble visuel basse vision ou malvoyance

In France, it is estimated that 2 million people are affected by visual impairment. Also known as vision loss, visual impairment causes difficulties seeing, even with eyeglasses. It may also be accompanied by a reduced field of vision. It is particularly common amongst the over 50s.

Visual impairment can also be caused by some progressive diseases: ARMD (Age-Related Macular Degeneration), glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, etc.

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 Loss of central vision, scotoma (black spots) in the visual field, tunnel vision
 Heightened sensitivity to light, blurred vision
 Loss of contrast sensitivity or visual field